Textile Terms
What is embroidery

Embroidery is the craft of decorating fabric or other materials using a needle to apply thread or yarn. Embroidery may also incorporate other materials such as pearls, beads, quills, and sequins.

What is a Jacquard Weave?

A Jacquard fabric weave is characterized as being highly textured with large intricate designs, woven on a specific Jacquard loom in a process invented in the early 1800’s by Joseph Marie Jacquard. A series of punched cards relating to the motif, regulate the raising of stationary warp thread mechanisms. The introduction of electronic Jacquard looms in the 1980’s and subsequent computerization has resulted in jacquard fabrics becoming more efficient, higher quality and easier to produce.

What is Appliqué?

Appliqué is ornamental needlework in which pieces or patch of fabric in different shapes and patterns are sewn or stuck onto a larger piece to form a picture or pattern. It is commonly used as decoration, especially on garments.

What is a warp/weft of a woven fabric?

WARP – The yarns that run vertically or lengthwise, in woven fabrics. Textile fabrics are woven using warp yarns, referred to as ends.

WEFT – An individual yarn running horizontally or across the fabric which interlaces with the warp yarn at right angles in weaving fabric. Also known as a filling pick. 

Read more here.

How is a coated lining made and what is it made of?

The manufacturing process of a thermal lining involves a thermal coating being applied directly to the reverse side of the fabric to reduce the amount of harmful ultraviolet light passing through the fabric, whilst increasing the insulation. Learn about our UV Pro products here.

What is the difference between 1 pass and 3 passes in coating?

THERMAL - One layer (1 Pass) of coated acrylic suede compound is known as thermal lining. It offers the advantages of insulation and energy savings, helping to keep a room warm in the winter and cool in the summer. It is important to understand that a certain amount of light will pass into the room with this construction. As with all quality linings, thermal lining not only protects soft furnishings from fading, they are also treated to resist mildew and enables good drapability. The manufacturing process of a thermal lining involves a thermal coating being applied directly to the reverse side of the fabric to reduce the amount of harmful ultraviolet light passing through the fabric, whilst increasing the insulation.

BLACKOUT - Three layers (3 Pass) of coated acrylic suede compound is known as ‘blackout’ thermal lining. This process offers the same benefits of thermal lining but also totally eliminates light penetration. Blackout lining naturally minimizes the risk of natural flaws in the fabric from showing through. It also adds body to the fabric and provides a good stable base for roman blinds.

Mélange Yarn

Mélange yarn is a blend of two or more different coloured fibres to develop various shades in the yarn. Different ratio of fibres in the blend alters the uniqueness of spun mélange yarn.

Heathered Yarn

Heathered yarn is spun using pre-dyed fibres. These fibres are blended together to give a particular look. (For example, black and white may be blended together to create a heathered yarn that is grey in color.) The term, heather, may also be used to describe the fabric made from heathered yarns.

Eyelash Yarn

Eyelash yarn is a type of novelty yarn. It is constructed with the use of a thread base, with several long strands spaced at even intervals. These strands jut out from the main strand at angles giving the appearance of an eyelash.


This effect is created in the finishing. Embossing rollers are engraved with a crepe pattern which imprints a crepe effect onto the fabric through heat and pressure. 

Chenille Yarn

A pile fabric woven using chenille yarns, usually in the weft, to produce a fabric usually softer and less uniform appearance than velvet. The yarn is produced by binding short fibers (2-3 mm) into twisted yarns to form the distinctive appearance and handle.

Boucle Yarn

Created by using any fibre, the Boucle yarn construction uses looped and drawn out yarn. It has a curly appearance and is derived from the French term “boucler”, meaning to curl or buckle into ringlets.

What is Cross Dyeing?

Cross dyeing is a process in which different fibres in a blend are dyed different hues in the same dye bath. The different compositions in the blend takes the dye differently creating a multi-toned effect.

What is Space Dyeing?

Multi coloured yarns are created using this space dyeing technique. Colourants are applied using this technique to the yarn at intervals to achieve random or regular multi coloured effect.

What is Solution Dyeing?

Solution dying is a process where the pigment or colour is bonded in the solution and colour fibre is extruded. Colour goes through the entire fibre and is clear, clean, and fast. 

Yarn Dye vs Piece Dye. What is the difference?

The colour of the fabric can be applied to the overall design in two ways. Yarn Dyed fabric is where the yarn has been dyed prior to weaving the fabric. Piece Dyed fabric is woven as greige or natural and then dyed “as a piece”. 

What is Batch Dyeing?

The fabric is subject to the dying process in lots or batches. This is to create a consistent colour across the full production. 

What is Basket Dyeing?

Basket dyeing is when a fabric is dyed and tumble washed at the same time. An artisanal process which creates a unique, irregular, and vintage appearance.

What is the difference between topical & inherent Flame-Retardant Fabric?

Topical flame retardant is where a chemical treatment is applied to a fabric. When that treatment is exposed to flame a gas is emitted and oxygen precluded, causing the flame to be extinguished. As this is a topical treatment it can be subject to deterioration over time, and also the emitted gas is usually fairly toxic. Inherent flame retardant is where the fibre itself contains the flame inhibitor. The latter is a more permanent for the life of the fabric and cannot wash or wear off.  See our flame-retardant products here

What is a vertical half drop pattern repeat/match?

This is when the pattern does not match exactly on each side of the fabric roll. It matches half a vertical drop down instead. Dropping the designs half, a repeat helps deceive the eye and makes the fabric look “wider” with “less joins”. 

What is a direct/standard pattern repeat/match?

This is one of the most common type of pattern match. The pattern is matched straight across the roll from the selvedge to selvedge. This makes for a tidy join when two drops are placed directly beside each other. 

Railroading fabric for upholstery.

Applying fabric to furniture so that the weft or filling yarns run vertically. By turning the fabric 90 degrees from the direction it was woven allows a length of fabric to be used to cover an entire sofa back without prominent seams.


Extremely fine manufacturing fibre or filament of 1 decitex or less. 

Product Information
What is the Blue Scale?

The Blue Scale is used for assessing the light fastness of printed or dyed fabrics and textiles.  
The scale graduates from light (1) to dark (8), the higher the rating, the better the resistance. A score of 1/8 is very poor, and 7/8 is exceptionally good.

Learn more about colour fastness here.

How do I know if the product is available?

Product stock holding is shown on the individual product page. 

* You must be a client and logged into the website to view this information.

Care Codes

Care Code symbols and definitions can be downloaded here.

Colour Standards

All colours utilise quality dye stuffs and should give satisfactory service under normal conditions.

Colour matching to previous deliveries or sample swatches cannot be guaranteed.

What is a fabric pill?

A ‘pill’ or more commonly known as a bobble, fuzz ball, or lint ball is a small ball of fibres that form on the face of a piece of fabric.  It is caused by abrasion between two surfaces. Loose fibres have a natural tendency to move to the surface of a piece of fabric, where they are subject to friction, this causes the fibres to twist together into small balls  

Pilling is more noticeable on synthetic fibres.  This is mainly because natural fabrics shed loose fibres easily and less noticeably, while man-made fibres are extremely strong, so the pills are anchored strongly to the fabric.

Learn more about fabric pilling here.

Learn more about textile testing for pilling here.

Transfer pilling is when the pilling is a different colour to the main base fabric. This occurs when two fabrics have pilled together.  Clothing, throw rugs or cushions are normally the cause.

As pilling is not a fabric defect or fault it is not covered under warranty.

For more information on pilling please read this article: Understanding fabric pilling

What is a Wyzenbeek test?

A Wynzenbeek test is an American abrasion test for upholstery fabrics, measured in double rubs, and created through a specified weight applied in a backwards and forwards motion, creating a 'double rub'.

Learn more about textile testing for abraision resistance here.

What is FR?

FR stands for Flame Retardant.  FR properties can be either inherent in the yarn or applied as a finish.  Inherent FR cannot be washed out and generally achieves a high certification for fire retardancy.  An after-market or solution finish can also achieve a good FR rating in the short term but may lessen over time depending upon how the fabric is treated.

The responsibility for attaining the appropriate FR certification is the role of the Specifier, as every project and location has a different requirement with varying context. See our FR products here

What are Martindale Rubs/Cycles?

Martindale is a test used in Europe, the UK, Australia and New Zealand, for measuring the resistance to abrasion (rubs), as a means of assessing wearability in upholstery fabrics. It is created by applying a specific weight to the fabric, using a circular motion. Small samples of the fabric to be tested are mechanically rubbed against a standard abradant material and the number of cycles (rubs) is assessed at “endpoint”, i.e., when a number of threads are broken.

The number of Martindale rubs is recorded for your perusal on every fabric specification sheet.

As a rough rule of thumb:
Up to 12000 - Light use (occasional furniture)
13000-20000 - Residential
21000 and above - Commercial

Learn more about textile testing for abrasion resistance here.

What is railroading?

Railroading is applying fabric to furniture so that the weft or filling runs vertically. Turning it 90 degrees from the direction that it came off the loom. When railroaded, a length of fabric can be used to cover an entire sofa back without prominent seams.

Many upholstery fabrics are designed so that they can be railroaded. This means that if you turn the bolt on end and roll out the fabric from left to right, the pattern would be continuous across the roll. Fabric which is woven this way is particularly useful in sofas. If a fabric can be railroaded, this eliminates seams on the outside back of a large sofa. If a fabric is not woven to be railroaded, the fabric is used off the roll.

What are your minimums?

The minimum order size is 1 metre. 

Do you supply other products that are not on your website?

We are unable to show every design from our extensive range.

However, if you would like to contact us with a product name/design/number or idea of what you are looking for we can suggest products that fit that description.

Textile Constructions & Finishes
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Account & Order Information
How do I track my delivery?

When your order is dispatched, you should receive an email which will include a link to track your order via the courier's website. You can also find this link when logged into your website trade account; select the appropriate invoice number, then"Track shipment" under shipping details to track and trace the delivery of your order. 

Pricing and product withdrawals / discontinued

Zepel Fabrics reserves the right to change prices without notice.
Withdraw or discontinue products. Items no longer listed in the Zepel Fabrics price list should be considered discontinued and sampling of such items be removed. 

Small order surcharge

A surcharge of $25 plus GST will be added to all invoices below a value of $150 (exclusive of GST). Samples are excluded from this charge.

Return of Goods

All returns must be authorised by Zepel Fabrics. The Australian and International standard for acceptable flaws is 6 flaws per 50mt roll of fabric. Please note that Zepel Fabrics adheres to this standard and will not accept returns that meet this criteria. Zepel Fabrics will only accept returned goods if:

The goods supplied are not in accordance with the order placed.
The fabric has not been cut.
The claim is made within 21 days of receipt.
Arrangements have been made with Zepel Fabrics to inspect the goods and claim has been lodged.
The returned fabric is accompanied with a written claim, citing the invoice number, authorisation number and reason for return.
Goods returned must be securely wrapped to avoid damage in transit.

Lost in Transit

In the event that goods are lost in transit, Zepel Fabrics reserves the right to replace goods based on evidence that the customer has endeavoured to assist Zepel Fabrics in locating missing goods. Credit for missing goods will be given once Zepel Fabrics is satisfied that the goods are lost, indefinitely. In the event that goods appear / are delivered to the customer, after a credit has been given, the customer must notify Zepel Fabrics and is liable for the goods. Zepel Fabrics reserves the right to invoice the customer, if the goods are not returned in merchantable quality.


The customer agrees and acknowledges that:

Zepel Fabrics accepts no responsibility or duty for delivery but may elect to arrange delivery at its discretion, without liability and customers' costs and responsibility in all things.
Orders will be delivered FIS (free into store) within the metro areas of all Australian mainland capital cities.

$20 plus GST freight charge applies to all deliveries outside the metro areas of the Australian mainland capital cities.
On-forwarding freight to all locations or special delivery (EG: air, sea or road express) will be at the customers' expense. Where on-forwarding instructions are not specified, a freight charge will apply.
It shall be deemed to accepted delivery and liability for products immediately Zepel Fabrics notifies the customer that they are ready for collection or they are delivered to a carrier or to the Customers business premises or site whether attended or not.

A certificate purporting to be signed by an officer of Zepel Fabrics confirming delivery shall be conclusive evidence of delivery as shall any signed delivery docket.
Zepel Fabrics will not be liable for delay, failure or inability to deliver any products or perform any services.

Once the customer is notified products are ready for collection or delivery, the customer agrees to pay all costs of Zepel Fabrics in holding those products for the customer.


This also applies where fabrics are delivered to any third party nominated by the customer, IE; workrooms and manufacturers
Any possible claims will be subject to this clause.


Unused credits expire after twelve (12) months and is the sole responsibility of the Customer to advise if and when a credit is to be applied to a particular invoice.
Credits are non-refundable and non-transferable.

Credits can only be used to offset an account or be applied to any current order or back order with Zepel Fabrics.

Zepel Fabrics reserves the right to reverse credits that have expired and cannot be reinstated.

Cancellation of orders

A service fee of 20% will apply to returned orders that have been supplied correctly as ordered and when Zepel Fabrics have agreed to accept these goods for credit.
A credit will only be issued once the goods have been physically returned to Zepel Fabrics warehouse.

If goods are not returned in good order, Zepel Fabrics reserves the right to reject the claim for credit on cancelled goods.

Cancellation of INDENT or COMMERCIAL orders specifically bought in for overseas for customer or custom goods produced will not be accepted. Refer to Commercial and Indent Terms and Conditions.

Customer Material

The customer acknowledges and agrees:

That it is the customers' responsibility to ensure that anything ("material") which is provided by or on behalf of the customer, to be used by Zepel Fabrics in meeting any orders, is correct and appropriate in every particular.

The material will be relied upon Zepel Fabrics in the providing of any product or services shall be merchantable quality and fit for the purpose and will become the property of Zepel Fabrics.


Sample: no contract between Zepel Fabrics and the customer shall be or deemed to be a sale by sample.

If Zepel Fabrics published material concerning its products, services or prices so anything published which is incompatible with these terms is expressly excluded.

The customer will rely on its knowledge and expertise in selecting any product or services for any purpose and any advice or assistance given for or on behalf of Zepel Fabrics shall be accepted at the customers' risk and shall not be deemed given as expert or advisor nor to have been riled upon by or through the customer.

Limit of Liability

The customer agrees to limit any claim it makes to the cost of the supply of equivalent products or to the total invoiced amount.

Zepel Fabrics shall not be liable for any claim, loss or expense which is made after 5 days from the date of delivery of product or services (or at all once products have been unpacked, on-sold or otherwise used or applied) after which there shall be deemed to be unqualified acceptance.

Zepel Fabrics will not be liable for any contingent consequential direct / indirect special or punitive damages arising in any way, whether due to Zepel Fabrics' negligence or otherwise. The customer acknowledges this express limit of liability and agrees to limit any claim accordingly.

No other term, condition, agreement, warranty, representation or understanding whether express or implied, extending to or relating to or binding upon Zepel Fabrics (whether as to fitness for purpose, merchantability or otherwise) is made or given.


Property in all products including samples on consignment, shall not pass until payment is made in full of all monies owed for products as Zepel Fabrics reserves the right to take possession and dispose of products as it sees fit at any time.
The customer grants permission to Zepel Fabrics to enter any property where any product is in order to do so with such force as necessary.

Upon delivery the customer accepts liability for safe custody of products and indemnifies Zepel Fabrics for any losses relating thereto.

Upon disposition of any products prior to payment in full the customer agrees to deposit all proceeds in a separate bank account, agrees not to mix proceeds with any other monies and will account to Zepel Fabrics therefore any credit facility and / or time to pay or any conduct of Zepel Fabrics.

Until payment in full the customer agrees:To keep all products unpaid for as fiduciary for Zepel Fabrics and store them in a manner which shows Zepel Fabrics as owner.
Only to sell products in the usual course of its business on condition that the customer holds all proceeds in trust for Zepel Fabrics.

Sale on terms for less than cost shall be "in the usual course".
This clause 3 is not intended to create charge over any products and shall be read down to the extent necessary.

The customer agrees that:Products will be deemed at all times to be dealt with the customer on a "first in first out basis".

Invoices from Zepel Fabrics identifying products as unpaid for shall be conclusive evidence that the goods have not been paid for and of Zepel Fabrics title thereto.
If the customer uses product in any packaging, fabrication or manufacturing process, the customer agrees to hold such part of the proceeds of sale of finished articles in which equates to the invoiced price for the products used, upon trust for Zepel Fabrics until payment in full for those products and of all monies owed to Zepel Fabrics.


Interest is payable on all overdue amounts unpaid for 60 days from the date of the monthly statement on which the invoice was first shown. Such interest shall be paid at the rate of 13% per month compounded or at such other rate as shall be determined by the Grantor of Credit.

Full roll orders

The international industry standard for acceptable flaws in roll stock is 5 flaws per 50m of fabric. 

Please note Zepel Fabrics adheres to this standard and will not accept returns that meet this criteria.


Payment is to be made by cheque, bank cheque, credit card, or Electronic Funds Transfer without deduction, within 30 days from end of month in which invoice was issued. Zepel Fabrics reserves the right to:

Withhold supplying any pending orders without any prior notice if accounts are overdue.
Charge an accounting monthly fee of $7.50 which will apply to all accounts showing an outstanding balance of $100 or more at the completion of each month. No account shall be deemed to be paid until full payment is received by Zepel Fabrics.


Within two years of purchase Zepel will replace any fabric that is found to be faulty as a result of textile manufacturing defects and has been:

• Manufactured to industry standard practices and procedures.
• Properly maintained and professionally cleaned on a regular basis.
• Applied and/or used normally for its intended residential or single shift commercial installation.
• Protected from sunlight damage.
• Not subject to third party after treatment.

Warranties are extended to the invoiced purchaser only. Any claims must be made via the invoiced purchaser.

Indent Stock Orders

Indent stock is held at our European suppliers warehouses, so delivery schedules can take 2-3 weeks.

Shipping & Delivery

Should an item be temporarily unavailable, an acknowledgment confirming anticipated arrival will be issued.  If this later delivery is not acceptable, you must formally cancel your order.

All deliveries must be approved prior to manufacture for colour matching, handle and general suitability. Any possible claims will be subject to this clause.

Where deliveries are made to third parties, it is your responsibility to check that the correct fabric/wall covering is received. We strongly advise that a sample is sent to you from your third party for verification when goods are received.

Not all fabrics are rolled face in. If you are ordering a fabric that could be made up either side, we recommend you send a cutting to your workroom confirming the preferred face.

Can I order directly from the website?

Yes, we have an e-commerce section on our website which you can also use to check on stock holdings of each product.

* You need an account to order through the website.